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Historic coal mine subsidence incident in Boulder County, Colorado, March 2003. Photo credit: T.C. Wait for the CGS.

Ground Subsidence


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Subsidence is the sinking or settling of the ground surface. It can occur by a number of processes. Ground subsidence may result from the settlement of native low density soils, or the caving in of natural or man-made underground voids. Subsidence may occur gradually over many years as sags or depressions form on the ground surface. More infrequent, subsidence may occur abruptly as dangerous ground openings that could swallow any part of a structure that happen to lie at that location, or leave a dangerous steep-sided hole. In Colorado, the types of subsidence of greatest concern are settlement related to collapsing soils, sinkholes in karst areas, and the ground subsidence over abandoned mine workings.

Legal definition

H.B. 1041, 106-7-103(10): “Ground subsidence” means a process characterized by downward displacement of surface material caused by natural phenomena such as removal of underground fluids, natural consolidation, or dissolution of underground minerals, or by man-made phenomena such as underground mining.